Mathematics education in Spain and Portugal. (English)

Karp, Alexander (ed.) et al., Handbook on the history of mathematics education. New York, NY: Springer (ISBN 978-1-4614-9154-5/hbk; 978-1-4614-9155-2/ebook). 283-302 (2014).

Summary: The first section offers a brief overview of Spanish mathematics education over the last two centuries, in the context of the educational system as a whole, which in turn depended to a very large extent on the country’s political and economic circumstances. Although political instability delayed the regulation of secondary education in Spain until 1836, the syllabi of 1845 and 1857 set up the basic structure throughout the nineteenth century. The country developed a system for preparing mathematics teachers that was relatively demanding ‒ above all with respect to mathematical knowledge ‒ and absorbed international experience through translations of textbooks. Later, Spain took part in the principal international movements in mathematics education, becoming involved in the ICMI and the reform movements of the 1950s‒1970s.{ }The development of school mathematics in Portugal is analysed under four dimensions: (1) the emergence of a consolidated secondary school system during the nineteenth century, (2) a shift in perspective triggered by {\it Escola Nova}, (3) the modern mathematics movement, and (4) a reflection of today’s school mathematics field with the emergence of specialists researching all the dimensions associated with teaching and learning mathematics.