Summary: The term "mathematical resilience" is used to describe a learnerâ€™s stance towards mathematics that enables pupils to continue learning despite finding setbacks and challenges in their mathematical learning journey. There are ways of working in mathematics that increase mathematical resilience and conversely there are ways of working that decrease pupilsâ€™ mathematical resilience. In this article, the authors first discuss what mathematical resilience is, why it is important for pupils to develop it, and then consider what ways of working increase mathematical resilience. All learning requires a certain resilience but the authors contend that the resilience required for learning mathematics (mathematical resilience) is a particular construct due to the specific barriers that are presented when learning mathematics, at least in part because of the type of teaching that has often been used (e.g. tedious, isolationist, using rote learning, elitist and depersonalised) and in part because of pervasive beliefs about the fixed nature of mathematics ability. (Contains 1 note and a list of further readings.) (ERIC)