Reasoning about data. (English)

Kilpatrick, Jeremy et al., A research companion to the principles and standards for school mathematics. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, VA (ISBN 0-87353-537-5). 193-215 (2003).

In this chapter, we focus primarily on what we have learned more recently from research about how younger students reason about data, concentrating on ideas that begin developing in early elementary school. We therefore do not review the literature related to statistical inference. One reason for not reviewing that literature here is that a reasonable treatment would require us to also review the development of probabilistic thinking. But more importantly, core ideas in reasoning about data tend to get shoved to the wings as soon as statistical inference takes the stage. The issues we discuss here, though basic, are still essential to statistical reasoning in the upper grades. (orig.)