This book brings together a number of key, and sometimes controversial, issues in mathematics education. It focuses in particular upon the social context of teaching mathematics and its impact upon teachers and students with diverse social and cultural backgrounds. The issues covered include: the role played by mathematics textbooks; the English National numeracy strategy; incorporating ICT; international comparisons of mathematical attainment; the values adopted, implicitly and explicitly in mathematics teaching; how to use - and not to use - classroom resources. All chapters, which are reviewed individually in ZDM/MATHDI, benefit from being informed by current state-of-the-art research in mathematics education and each of the contributors has an international reputation in her or his field.