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Fourth generation instructional systems development: a problem solving approach. (English)
J. Struct. Learn. Intell. Syst. 14, No. 3, 229-252 (2000).
A fourth generation of instructional systems development (ISD) models is now emerging. This most recent ISD generation is characterized as dynamic, in which the system design attributes are iterative and nonsequential, and is unique to each learning problem and/or need situation. Rather than trying to fit all learning problems and needs into a single solution, the fourth generation seeks to improve instructional development efficiency by viewing ISD from a problem solving approach. Instead of a “big wrench” approach to learning problem solutions, $\text{ISD}^4$ makes problem assessment and evaluation the most important activity in the entire instructional development (ID) process. The problem solving approach to ID involves three problem sets: initial learning problem/need; anticipated problems; and, unanticipated problems. The three earlier generation ISD models did not deal with these three basic types of problem solving.
Classification: D40
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