id: 06530496
dt: j
an: 2016a.00547
au: Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Tobias, Stephen
ti: Cognitive load in percentage change problems: unitary, pictorial, and
equation approaches to instruction.
so: Instr. Sci. 42, No. 5, 685-713 (2014).
py: 2014
pu: Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
la: EN
cc: F83 D53 C33
ut: cognitive load; percentage change problems; problem solving
ci:
li: doi:10.1007/s11251-014-9309-6
ab: Summary: Eighth grade students in Australia ($N = 60$) participated in an
experiment on learning how to solve percentage change problems in a
regular classroom in three conditions: unitary, pictorial, and equation
approaches. The procedure involved a pre-test, an acquisition phase,
and a post-test. The main goal was to test the relative merits of the
three approaches from a cognitive load perspective. Experimental
results indicated superior performance of the equation approach over
the unitary or pictorial approach especially for the complex tasks. The
unitary approach required students not only to process the interaction
between numerous elements within and across solution steps, but also to
search for critical information, thus imposing high cognitive load. The
pictorial approach did not provide a consistent approach to tackling
various percentage change problems. Coupled with the need to coordinate
multiple elements within and across solution steps, and the need to
search for relevant information in the diagram, this approach imposed
high cognitive load. By treating the prior knowledge of percentage
quantity as a single unit, the equation approach required students to
process two elements only. Empirical evidence and theoretical support
favor the equation approach as an instructional method for learning how
to solve percentage change problems for eighth graders.
rv: