id: 02348629
dt: j
an: 2002f.05408
au: Konold, Clifford; Pollatsek, Alexander
ti: Data analysis as the search for signals in noisy processes.
so: J. Res. Math. Educ. 33, No. 4, 259-289 (2002).
py: 2002
pu: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), Reston, VA
la: EN
cc: K40
ut: historical analyses; conceptual knowledge
ci:
li: doi:10.2307/749741
ab: The idea of data as a mixture of signal and noise is perhaps the most
fundamental concept in statistics. Research suggests, however, that
current instruction is not helping students to develop this idea, and
that though many students know, for example, how to compute means or
medians, they do not know how to apply or interpret them. Part of the
problem may be that the interpretations we often use to introduce data
summaries, including viewing averages as typical scores or fair shares,
provide a poor conceptual basis for using them to represent the entire
group for purposes such as comparing one group to another. To explore
the challenges of learning to think about data as signal and noise, we
examine the ’signal/noise’ metaphor in the context of three
different statistical processes: repeated measures, measuring
individuals, and dichotomous events. On the basis of this analysis, we
make several recommendations about research and instruction.
rv: