id: 06458049
dt: j
an: 2015e.00845
au: Batanero, Carmen; Cañadas, Gustavo R.; Díaz, Carmen; Gea, Maria M.
ti: Judgment of association between potential factors and associated risk in
$2\times 2$ tables: a study with psychology students.
so: Math. Enthus. 12, No. 1-3, 347-363 (2015).
py: 2015
pu: Information Age Publishing (IAP), Charlotte, NC; University of Montana,
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Missoula, MT
la: EN
cc: K75 K95 D75
ut: risk; stochastics; probability theory; statistics; university teaching;
research; perception of risk; risk factors; perception of association;
independence; 2-way tables; semiotic conflicts; psychology students;
student errors; misconceptions; problem solving strategies
ci:
li: http://www.math.umt.edu/tmme/vol12no1thru3/25_Batanero_et_al.pdf
ab: Summary: This study was aimed to evaluate the accuracy and strategies used
in the estimation of association between potential factors and
associated risks when data are presented in $2\times 2$ tables. A
sample of 414 undergraduate Psychology students from three different
Spanish universities was given three different tasks (direct and
inverse association and perfect independence) where they had to
estimate such association. Most participants judged association in the
task where there was perfect independence, but the data contradicted
the students’ previous expectations. The estimation of association
was consistent with the perception of association and the accuracy of
estimates increased with correct strategies. Our participants performed
worse than secondary school students in a previous study and we found
no difference in the three participating universities. We classify the
students’ strategies in the tasks in levels of complexity and explain
the incorrect strategies using the idea of semiotic conflict.
rv: