
06074978
j
2012e.00310
RittleJohnson, Bethany
Koedinger, Kenneth
Iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures can improve mathematics knowledge.
Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 79, No. 3, 483500 (2009).
2009
Wiley (WileyBlackwell), Oxford / Hoboken, NJ; British Psychological Society (BPS), Leicester
EN
C73
U53
mathematical applications
arithmetic
grade 6
intelligent tutoring systems
instructional effectiveness
transfer of training
doi:10.1348/000709908X398106
Summary: Background: Knowledge of concepts and procedures seems to develop in an iterative fashion, with increases in one type of knowledge leading to increases in the other type of knowledge. This suggests that iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures may improve learning. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the instructional benefits of an iterative lesson sequence compared to a conceptsbeforeprocedures sequence for students learning decimal placevalue concepts and arithmetic procedures. Samples: In two classroom experiments, sixthgrade students from two schools participated ($N = 77$ and 26). Method: Students completed six decimal lessons on an intelligenttutoring systems. In the iterative condition, lessons cycled between concept and procedure lessons. In the conceptsfirst condition, all concept lessons were presented before introducing the procedure lessons. Results: In both experiments, students in the iterative condition gained more knowledge of arithmetic procedures, including ability to transfer the procedures to problems with novel features. Knowledge of concepts was fairly comparable across conditions. Finally, pretest knowledge of one type predicted gains in knowledge of the other type across experiments. Conclusions: An iterative sequencing of lessons seems to facilitate learning and transfer, particularly of mathematical procedures. The findings support an iterative perspective for the development of knowledge of concepts and procedures.