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\input zb-matheduc
\iteman{ZMATH 2014a.00375}
\itemau{Frankenstein, Marilyn}
\itemti{Critical mathematics education: an application of Paulo Freire's epistemology.}
\itemso{Philos. Math. Educ. J. 25, Special Issue: Critical Mathematics Education, 24 p., electronic only (2010).}
\itemab
Summary: Paulo Freire's critical education theory is ``re-invented'' in the context of a mathematics curriculum for urban working-class adults. The problems Freire poses for teachers in that context are explored and work of other theorists which deepens or questions aspects of Freire's theory is discussed. Next, Freire's theory is applied to teaching basic mathematics and statistics for the social sciences. It is argued that such mathematical literacy is vital in the struggle for liberatory social change in our advanced technological society. Finally, this reflection on practice is used to pose further problems to be explored in the creation and re-creation of the ``pedagogy of the oppressed''. Freire's educational theory is complex. In this essay, I will focus on the problems he poses that are particularly pressing for teachers in schools in the United States. For this reason, I will not treat his theory on why revolutionary party leaders must also be educators, or his assumptions (historically grounded in the reality of the various Third World countries in which he has practiced) that these leaders would come from the bourgeoisie, ``committing suicide as a class in order to rise again as revolutionary workers''. Instead, I want to investigate his epistemology, his theory about the relationship between education and social change, and his methodology for developing critical consciousness. Because of Freire's argument that critical education involves problem posing in which all involved are challenged to reconsider and recreate their prior knowledge, this presentation should be seen as an exploration intended to help extend our thinking, not as ``Freire's definitive formulas-for-liberation''. A discussion of my own experience teaching urban working-class adults basic mathematics and statistics for the social sciences demonstrates ways in which Freire's theory can illuminate specific problems and solutions in critical teaching, and ways in which mathematics education can contribute to liberatory social change. This paper first appeared in [J. Educ. 165, No. 4, 315--339 (1983; ME 1984x.00444)].
\itemrv{~}
\itemcc{D20 A40 C60}
\itemut{critical mathematics education; mathematics and society; theory of mathematics education; adult education; knowledge; liberatory social change; critical consciousness; epistemology; mathematical literacy; statistics knowledge; sociocultural aspects; research; educational sociology; sciences of education; teaching; social sciences; sociology of science; mathematics and philosophy}
\itemli{http://people.exeter.ac.uk/PErnest/pome25/Marilyn%20Frankenstein%20%20Critical%20Mathematics%20Education.doc}
\end