
06109027
j
2012f.00853
Pfannkuch, Maxine
Wild, Chris J.
Parsonage, Ross
A conceptual pathway to confidence intervals.
ZDM, Int. J. Math. Educ. 44, No. 7, 899911 (2012).
2012
Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg
EN
K10
stochastic conception
probability instruction
statistics instruction
secondary students
university students
dynamic visual imagery
bootstrap
doi:10.1007/s1185801204466
Summary: Finding ways for the majority of students to better understand conventional normal theorybased statistical inference seems to be an intractable problem area for researchers. In this paper we propose a conceptual pathway for developing confidence interval ideas for the onesample situation only from an intuitive sense to bootstrapping for students from about age 14 to firstyear university. We make the case that conceptual development should start early; that probability and statistical instruction should change so that both orientate students towards interconnected stochastic conceptions; and that the use of visual imagery has the potential to stimulate students towards such a perspective. We analyse our conceptual pathway based on a theoretical framework for a stochastic conception of statistical inference based on imagery and some research evidence. Our analysis suggests that the pathway has the potential for students to become conversant with the concepts underpinning inference, to view statistics probabilistically and to integrate concepts into a coherent comprehension of inference.