
06238005
j
2014a.00680
Reed, Stephen K.
Corbett, Albert
Hoffman, Bob
Wagner, Angela
MacLaren, Ben
Effect of worked examples and cognitive tutor training on constructing equations.
Instr. Sci. 41, No. 1, 124 (2013).
2013
Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
EN
H34
F94
M14
U54
D44
cognitive tutor
transferappropriate processing
worked examples
word problems
algebra
ME 2006e.02768
doi:10.1007/s112510129205x
Summary: Algebra students studied either statictable, staticgraphics, or interactivegraphics instructional worked examples that alternated with algebra cognitive tutor practice problems. A control group did not study worked examples but solved both the instructional and practice problems on the cognitive tutor (CT). Students in the control group requested fewer hints and made fewer errors on the CT practice problems but required more learning time on the instructional examples. There was no difference among the four groups in constructing equations on a paperandpencil posttest or on a delayed test that included training and transfer problems. However, students who studied worked examples with a table were best at identifying the meaning of the equation components. The concept of transferappropriate processing (the overlap between instructional task and assessment task) aided our interpretation of the findings. Although the CT had a shortterm effect on reducing errors and hint requests on CT practice problems, the worked examples were as effective on delayed paperandpencil tests. The subsequent construction of a new module for the Animation Tutor [{\it S. K. Reed} and {\it B. Hoffman}, Animation Tutor: mixtures. Instructional software. San Diego: San Diego State University (2011)] used both the interactivegraphics and statictable worked examples to take advantage of the complementary strengths of different representations [{\it S. Ainsworth}, Learn. Instr. 16, No. 3, 183198 (2006; ME 2006e.02768)].