
06467612
j
2015e.00492
Kinzer, Cathy J.
Stanford, Ted
The distributive property: the core of multiplication.
Teach. Child. Math. 20, No. 5, 302309 (2013).
2013
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), Reston, VA
EN
F32
D82
multiplication
distributive property
mathematical concepts
mental calculations
addition
activities
http://www.nctm.org/publications/article.aspx?id=40208
Summary: This article presents a sequence of learning activities that lead to using the area model of multiplication to understand the distributive property (DP). The connection between area and multiplication is an important one, both for algebraic thinking and for geometry, as indicated in two of the critical areas for the third grade in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: (1) Students develop an understanding of the meanings of multiplication and division of whole numbers through activities and problems involving equalsize groups, arrays, and area models; and (2) Students recognize area as an attribute of twodimensional regions. By decomposing rectangles into rectangular arrays of squares, students connect area to multiplication. This article explains the DP for teacher reference, then describes the five steps of preK to grade 3 learning progression necessary in understanding multiplication. The five steps are: (1) Decomposing small numbers; (2) Fluent mental addition of a one and a twodigit number; (3) Connecting area and addition; (4) Connecting area and multiplication; and (5) Use the area model and the DP to make connections between multiplication problems. The article then presents five corresponding learning activities that illustrate the steps of the learning progression through games and drawing activities to build and deepen understanding. (ERIC)