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MESC Classification

The Mathematics Education Subject Classification (MESC) was compiled by the Editorial Office of MathEduc with the kind support of numerous experts. It is reflected in the MSC2010 scheme in the area 97 – Mathematics education.

The MESC scheme consists of 16 main areas classified with two digits refined into over 1000 three-digit classifications. It serves as a compass to keep being informed about the developments in their areas of interest.

Searching the ever growing number of mathematical publications would not be possible without the help of this well organized scheme. Nearly all publications are classified according to this widely accepted tool.

Last digit

The last digit refers to the educational level:
0: General, difficult to classify in the third position
1: Kindergarten, Pre-school education
2: 1st to 4th year of school, primary education, elementary level
3: 5th to 10th year of school, secondary level, lower and middle secondary (all types of school)
4: 11th to 13th year of school, upper secondary
5: Universities, Colleges, Polytechnics
6: Special schools
7: Vocational schools
8: Extra mural institutes, Colleges of Further Education, Correspondence schools, Popular education etc.
9: Teacher training, teacher in-service training

Complete list

A10Comprehensive works on mathematics. Reference books, encyclopaedias and dictionaries
[textbooks see U20; material for repetition see U90; comprehensive works on special disciplines see each discipline]
A20Recreational mathematics
[educational games see U60]
A30Biographies. History of mathematics and of mathematics teaching
[sociological aspects of learning see C60; political education in the mathematics classroom see D30]
A40Sociological and political issues. The profession of teaching. Careers in mathematics, labour market
[sociological aspects of learning see C60; political education in the mathematics classroom see D30]
A50Bibliographies. Information and documentation
A60Proceedings. Conference reports. Collections of articles
A70Theses and postdoctoral theses
A90Picture stories. Cartoons. Fiction. Games
[recreational mathematics see A20; educational games see U60]
BEducational policy and educational system (Educational research, educational reforms, pilot projects, official documents, syllabuses)
B10Educational research and planning
B20General education
[syllabuses see B70]
B30Vocational education
[syllabuses see B70]
B40Higher education
B50Teacher education (Teacher preservice and inservice education)
B60Out-of-school education. Adult and further education (Summer schools, working groups, student competitions. Private study)
B70Syllabuses, curriculum guides, official documents
[testing of syllabuses in pilot classes see D30]
CPsychology of mathematics education. Research in mathematics education. Social aspects
C10Comprehensive works and surveys
C20Affective aspects (Motivation, anxiety, interest, attitudes, feelings. Self concept. Attention. Affective development)
C30Cognitive processes. Learning, learning theories (Thought processes, information processing, concept formation, problem solving, understanding. Learning. Memory. Perception. Cognitive development)
[concept teaching see E40; teaching problem solving see D50; social learning see C60; learning with texts see C50; teaching-learning-processes see C70]
C40Intelligence and aptitudes. Personality (Talent, intelligence, abilities and skills, creativity. Behaviour. Personality traits, personality development)
[learning difficulties and student errors see D70; achievement control see D60; special education see C90]
C50Language and communication (Teacher/student language styles. Language acquisition. Learning with texts. Language difficulties, multilingualism, teaching and learning mathematics in a second language. Communicative competence)
[mathematical language see E40; readability of textbooks see U20]
C60Sociological aspects of learning (Group dynamics. Interpersonal interaction. Social learning. Roles. Social, economic and cultural influences)
[teaching methods see D40; mathematics and society see A40]
C70Teaching-learning-processes. Evaluation of instruction (Relations between teaching-processes --- e.g. teacher attitudes, teaching methods --- and learning processes --- e.g. student attitudes, achievement. Effective teaching)
[teacher-student interaction see also C50, C60; learning see C30; teaching methods see D40]
C80Other psychological aspects (E.g.: test theory, neuropsychology, research methods in psychology)
C90Other educational aspects (E.g.: special education, vocational education, curriculum theory, andragogy)
[mathematics teaching see D; educational media and media research see U10; media education see U]
DEducation and instruction in mathematics
D10Comprehensive works and surveys on mathematics instruction in general and at different school levels and types. Comparative studies on mathematics education in different countries
D20Philosophical and theoretical contributions to mathematical didactics. Research methods. Theory of mathematics education
[history see A30; learning theories see C30; teaching-learning research see C70]
D30Goals of mathematics teaching. Curriculum development (Mathematical formation. Formation of general abilities by mathematics instruction. Minimal competencies. Objectives and content of mathematics education, also with regard to cultural demands. Impacts of new technologies on mathematics instruction. Innovations and trends. Curriculum research. Curriculum evaluation. Interaction with other subjects)
[syllabuses and curricula see B70; history of mathematics instruction see A30; socialisation in mathematics instruction see C60]
D40Teaching methods and classroom techniques. Lesson preparation. Educational principles (E.g.: classroom conversation, classroom organization, teaching approach, ability grouping)
[programmed instruction see U50; interactions see C50, C60, C70; evaluation of instruction see C70; language in mathematics instruction see C50; preparation for examinations see D60; teacher resources for preparing lessons see U30; interdisciplinary teaching see M10]
D50Investigating and problem solving (E.g.: teaching problem solving and heuristic strategies, methodology of problem solving, classification of exercises, problem solving in the curriculum)
[psychological aspects of problem solving see C30; see also test theory C80; exercise problems and competition questions see U40]
D60Student assessment (Achievement control and rating. Mathematics achievement. Assessing pupils performance. Control and measurement of knowledge, abilities and skills. Examinations, preparation for examinations)
[student errors see D70; problem books see U40; abilities as personality traits see C40]
D70Diagnosis, analysis and remediation of learning difficulties, misconceptions and student errors
[special education see C90; achievement control and rating see D60]
D80Teaching units, draft lessons and master lessons
EFoundations of mathematics
E10Comprehensive works on the foundations of mathematics and their teaching. Methodology of mathematical research
E20Metamathematics. Philosophical and ethical aspects of mathematics. Epistemology
[history of mathematics see A30]
E30Logic. Acquisition of logical verbal reasoning abilities in mathematics instruction
[Boolean algebra see H50]
E40Language of mathematics. Formalization. Defining. Axiomatics and axiomatic methods. Acquisition of mathematical concepts
[psychological aspects of concept formation see C30; verbal communication see C50; number concept see F20; mappings and functions see I20]
E50Proof methods. Reasoning and proving in the mathematics classroom
E60Sets. Relations. Set theory
[mappings and functions see I20]
FArithmetic. Number theory. Quantities
F10Comprehensive works on arithmetic and the teaching of arithmetic
F20Prenumerical stage. Number concept, counting
F30Natural numbers and operations on natural numbers. Place value. Pencil and paper arithmetic, mental arithmetic
[estimates see N20; representation of numbers (numerical mathematics) see N20]
F40Integers. Rational numbers. Arithmetic operations on integers, fractions and decimals. Extensions of number domains
F50Real numbers, powers and roots. Arithmetic operations on real numbers, powers and roots. Complex numbers
F60Number theory
F70Measures and units (Quantity concept, operations with specified measures and units)
[lengths, areas, volumes see G30]
F80Ratio and proportion. Rule of three. Percentages and calculation of interest. Mixture problems (E.g.: proportional quantities, inversely proportional quantities)
[mathematics in vocational training see M20]
F90Practical mathematics, real problem solving (E.g. real life problems)
[mathematical modelling and mathematical applications see M; teaching problem solving see D50; linguistic comprehension of word problems see C50]
G10Comprehensive works on geometry and the teaching of geometry
G20Informal geometry (Spatial orientation. Basic geometrical shapes)
[prenumerical stage see F20]
G30Areas and volumes (Lengths and areas, volumes and surface areas)
[quantities and units see also F70; word problems see F90]
G40Plane and solid geometry. Geometry in multidimensional spaces
[geometric transformations see G50]
G50Transformation geometry (Isometries, similarity transformations)
G60Trigonometry, spherics
G70Analytic geometry. Vector algebra
G80Descriptive geometry
[technical drawing see M20; cartography see M50]
G90Miscellaneous (E.g.: convex sets, packings, coverings, tessellations, non-euclidean geometries, finite geometries)
[fractals see I90]
[numerical method in algebra see N30]
H10Comprehensive works on algebra and the teaching of algebra
H20Elementary algebra (Variables, manipulation of expressions. Binomial theorem. Polynomials. Finite sums)
[theory of equations see H30]
H30Theory of equations and inequalities
[variables, terms see H20]
H40Operations. Groups, rings, fields
[computational rules see H20]
H50Ordered algebraic structures. Lattices. Boolean algebra
[propositional logic see E30]
H60Linear algebra. Multilinear algebra (Vector spaces, linear mappings, matrices, determinants, theory of equations)
[vector algebra see G70]
H70Miscellaneous (E.g.: algebraic topology, algebraic geometry)
[numerical method in analysis see N40]
I10Comprehensive works on calculus and the teaching of calculus
I20Mappings and functions. Elementary properties of functions. Special functions (Concept of function, representation of functions, graphs of functions. Functions of a real variable. Monotonicity, continuity, limits)
[sequences see I30; polynomials see H20]
I30Sequences, series, power series. Convergence, summability (infinite products, integrals)
I40Differential calculus (E.g.: curve sketching, extremum problems)
I50Integral calculus. Measure theory (Integrals of different types. E.g. applications on bodies of revolution)
I60Functions of several variables. Differential geometry
I70Functional equations (Definition of functions. Differential equations, difference equations, integral equations)
I80Functions of a complex variable, conformal mappings
[complex numbers see F50]
I90Miscellaneous (E.g.: functional analysis, set theoretical topology, catastrophe theory, non-standard analysis, fractals, chaos theory)
KCombinatorics and graph theory. Statistics and probability
K10Comprehensive works on stochastics and the teaching of stochastics
K20Combinatorics (Classical combinatorial theory, configurations, Latin squares)
[tessellations and packings see G90]
K30Graph theory
[discrete mathematics see N70; finite geometries see G90]
K40Descriptive statistics, statistical data handling, graphical methods of data representation, data analysis
K50Probability concept and probability theory
K60Probability distributions, stochastic processes, limit theorems
K70Statistical inference (Methods, non-parametric methods, robustness, Bayesian approach, methodology and foundations)
K80Correlation and regression analysis. Multivariate statistics (Discrimination, cluster analysis, factor analysis)
K90Applied statistics (E.g.: simulation, decision theory, reliability, quality control)
MMathematical modelling, applications of mathematics
M10Mathematization, its nature and its use in education. Interdisciplinarity. Comprehensive works on applications of mathematics
[probability and statistics see K; numerical methods see N; interactions with other subjects see D30]
M20Mathematics in vocational training and career education
[see also F80, F90]
M30Financial mathematics. Insurance mathematics
M40Operations research, economics
[mathematical programming see N60]
M50Physics. Astronomy. Technology. Engineering. Computer science. Earth sciences
M60Biology. Chemistry. Medicine. Pharmacy
M70Behavioural sciences. Social sciences. Education
M80Arts. Music. Language. Architecture
M90Miscellaneous (E.g. sport)
NNumerical mathematics. Discrete mathematics. Mathematical software
N10Comprehensive works on numerical mathematics and its instruction
N20Representation of numbers, rounding and estimation. Theory of errors and computation with approximate values. Conditioning.
N30Numerical algebra (Iteration methods for the solution of nonlinear equations and systems of linear and nonlinear equations, numerical linear algebra)
N40Numerical analysis (Numerical solution of differential and integral equations, numerical integration and differentiation)
[interpolation and approximation see N50]
N50Approximation, Interpolation, extrapolation
N60Mathematical programming
[operations research see M40]
N70Discrete mathematics (Finite methods in various mathematical fields, especially used as theoretical foundation in other disciplines)
[combinatorics see K20; graph theory see K30; finite geometries see G90; difference equations see I70]
N80Mathematical software. Collections of computer programs
[software for special disciplines see each discipline; computer as a teaching medium see U70]
N90Miscellaneous (E.g. experimental mathematics)
PComputer science
P10Comprehensive works on computer science
[historical reflections see A30]
P20Theory of computer science. Data (Information Theory, coding theory, automata theory, theory of formal languages, theory of algorithms, computational complexity, computability. Data acquisition, input, data structures, storage, coding, encryption)
[data protection see P70; databases and information systems see R50]
P30System software (Operating systems, tools, utilities
[user programms see R70]
P40Programming languages
P50Programming techniques. Software engineering (Problem analysis, program design, flowcharting structured programming. Program verification, debugging, run-time estimation
[psychology of computer programming see Q20, Q30]
P60Hardware (Description of special computers, Computer architectures, network architectures)
[software for networks see P30]
P70Computer science and society. Computer Science and philosophy (Data protection. Impacts of computers on science and education)
[impacts on mathematics teaching see D30; careers and labour market see A40; computer literacy see Q50]
QPsychology of computer science education. Computer science teaching
[mathematics teaching and learning see C and D]
Q10Comprehensive works
Q20Affective behaviour. Personality (Motivation, attitudes, anxiety, feelings, self concept. Skills and abilities. Creativity. Personality traits)
Q30Cognitive processes (Concept formation, thought processes, problem solving. Learning)
[artificial intelligence see R40]
Q40Sociological aspects of learning. Communication (Group dynamics. Roles. Social, economic and cultural influences. Social learning.
[teaching-learning processes see Q60]
Q50Objectives of computer science teaching. Computer literacy (Innovations and trends, curriculum development and research, testing of syllabuses in pilot classes)
[syllabuses and curricula see B70; historical reflections see A30]
Q60Lesson planning. Teaching methods and classroom techniques: evaluation of instruction (teaching-learning processes. Teaching principles. Classroom organization)
[computer aided instruction (CAI) see U50]
Q70Achievement control and rating. Diagnosis, analysis and remediation of learning difficulties and student errors
Q80Teaching units, draft lesssons and master lessons
RApplications of computer science and computers
R10Comprehensive works, collections of computer programs
R20Applications in mathematics and mathematical education (e.g. : computer algebra)
[computer aided instruction (CAI) see U50; user programs see R70]
R30Applications in natural, behavioral and social sciences, engineering, economics, humanities, earth sciences. Computers in schools and universities.
[computer aided instruction (CAI) see U50; user programs see R70]
R40Artificial intelligence (Image processing. Language processing. Pattern recognition. Automatical theorem proving. Expert systems,. Knowledge engineering)
[cognitive processes see C30, Q30; intelligent tutor systems see U50]
R50Data base information systems. Telecommunication (e.g. Internet)
[data see P20; data base managment systems R70]
R60Graphical data processing, computer graphics
R70User programs. Administrative uses in the educational system (e.g. word processing, spreadsheets)
R80Recreational computing. Computer games
UEducational material and media. Education technology
U10Comprehensive works on instructional materials, educational technology and media research
U20Textbooks. Analysis of textbooks, development and evaluation of textbooks. Textbook use in the classroom
[textbooks for special disciplines see each discipline; learning with texts see also C50]
U30Teacher manuals and planning aids (Teacher volumes, solutions, teaching aids)
[comments on syllabuses and edicts see B70; lesson preparation see D40; draft lessons and teaching units see D80]
U40Problem books, competition and examination questions
[student competitions see B60; preparation for examinations and achievement control see D60; teaching problem solving see D50]
U50Programmed instruction, computer assisted instruction (CAI, intelligent tutor systems, courseware design, e-learning)
[educational software see U70]
U60Manipulative materials and their use in the classroom (visualizations, teaching aids, models, educational games, worksheets. Teaching in laboratories)
[games see also A90]
U70Technological tools (Computers, calculators, software, mathematical instruments, etc.) Comments on their instructional use
[mathematical software see N80; collections of computer programs see N80]
U80Audiovisual media and their use in instruction (Transparencies, films. Broadcasting and television)
U90Miscellaneous (Student publications, repetition materials. Mathematical expositions)
[reference books see A10]

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